A strong historical movement originally in the French Church to restrict papal power. It reached its zenith in 1682 in France with the four articles - restricting the power of the Pope to spiritual matters, allowing many revenues of the Church to go to the state. The majority of Bishops and Priests accepted this restriction on Papal Power. Their opponents - the ultramontists - were most eloquently represented by Jesuits. Gallicanism was seriously weakened after the French Revolution, and was condemned in Vatican I.