Today we remember that the Jesuits returned to Portugal - 15 years after the Pope had universally restored the Society the Portuguese authorities authorised their return. 5 Frenchmen led the way - ironically one of their first jobs was to bury the disgraced Carvahlo, the Marquis of Pombal their deadly enemy. However the Society only survived in Portugal for 5 years before a return to exile in the wake of a revolution at the end of the Liberal Civil War of 1834.
In a period of remarkable instability as the government shifted from republican to those supporting the monarchy, they were to return gradually until official readmittance again in 1858 and had relative freedom from harassment and pressure for half a century to re-establish themselves until another revolution in 1910. By 1880 they had establishes 7 colleges and counted 120 men in the province. This was essential work at a time of decreasing prestige on an international stage, as the British forced the Portugese to abandon its ambitions in Africa (Angola & Mozambique)
The revolution in 1910 followed the Kings assassination in the Lisbon genocide of 1908. As the royal family were travelling across Lisbon in an open carriage, a former army sergeant and sharpshooter fired five shots from a rifle hidden under his long overcoat. The king died immediately, his heir, Luís Filipe, was mortally wounded, and Prince Manuel was hit in the arm. His succesor Manuel II was sent into exile in 1910 and a repiblic was declared. The Society followed in the new Kings wake, it was only 2 years after they had established the learned journal Broteria. The Republicans, with their anti clerical leanings saw a specific threat in the Society of Jesus.